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Common Questions

What therapy techniques and models do you use?

I work with individuals, families and couples to help facilitate change that they agree is going to be most useful. I utilize many different therapeutic approaches, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR), Mindfulness, Gottman Method Couples Therapy, Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and Experiential Family Therapy, to inform my work with clients and maintain a baseline philosophy that draws heavily from Family Systems training. As a therapist, I see my role as a collaborative facilitator of change. I seek to join with clients in a respectful way that acknowledges their own wisdom through practical, supportive, and empathetic connection. I recognize the unique challenges of each individual and system and seek to integrate emotions, thoughts, and actions to enable fuller, happier lives.

What is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)?

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of treatment that helps individuals learn how to identify and change destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influence on behavior and emotions. It focuses on changing the automatic negative thoughts that can contribute to and worsen emotional difficulties, depression, and anxiety. These spontaneous negative thoughts have a detrimental influence on mood. Through CBT, these thoughts are identified, challenged, and replaced with more objective, realistic thoughts.

What is Mindfulness Therapy?

Mindfulness is a type of therapy that involves a combination of cognitive therapy, meditation, and the cultivation of a present-oriented, non-judgmental attitude called "mindfulness." Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy builds upon the principles of cognitive therapy by using techniques such as mindfulness meditation to teach people to consciously pay attention to their thoughts and feelings without placing any judgments upon them.

What is EMDR Therapy?

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is one of my favorite models for therapy. EMDR therapy is an extensively researched, effective psychotherapy method proven to help people recover from trauma and other distressing life experiences, including PTSD, anxiety, depression, and panic disorders. EMDR therapy does not require talking in detail about the distressing issue or completing homework between sessions. EMDR therapy, rather than focusing on changing the emotions, thoughts, or behaviors resulting from the distressing issue, allows the brain to resume its natural healing process. EMDR therapy is designed to resolve unprocessed traumatic memories in the brain. For many clients, EMDR therapy can be completed in fewer sessions than other psychotherapies.

What is Gottman Method Couples Therapy?

The Gottman Method is an approach to couples therapy that includes a thorough assessment of the couple’s relationship and integrates research-based interventions based on the Sound Relationship House Theory. The goals of Gottman Method Couples Therapy are to disarm conflicting verbal communication; increase intimacy, respect, and affection; remove barriers that create a feeling of stagnancy; and create a heightened sense of empathy and understanding within the context of the relationship.

What is Experiential Therapy?

Experiential therapy states that one’s perception determines one’s behavior. By re-experiencing and releasing repressed negative emotions from the past, the client is better able to experience positive feelings such as love, forgiveness, and calm in the present, changing their perception of reality. Experiential therapy is often used in the treatment of trauma, eating disorders, behavior disorders, anger management, grief and loss recovery, substance abuse, and various types of physical and behavioral addictions and compulsive behavior such as gambling.

What are my payment options?

Payment for sessions is always one of the first questions asked when considering and beginning therapy services. I accept cash payment, various insurance plans (can be found on the ABOUT page), and offer a sliding scale option. 

Sliding scale is a method I offer to help make therapy more affordable for every client no matter what their current financial situation. A sliding fee scale is a range of rates assigned based on a specific variable, usually income. There are limited sliding scale spots and completion of a questionnaire is required to participate. 

I also create what is called a "superbill" which is a summary of services provided, date, and cost and this can be submitted to your insurance company for potential reimbursement. This option is considered an Out-of-Network (OON) provider. 

What can I expect from a therapy session?

Therapy sessions are usually 53 minutes long and these times can vary for couple or family therapy which could extend to 90 minutes. 

Your first session will be different from future visits as this is a period for us to get to know each other, feel comfortable and safe working together and get an idea of how to proceed. Future visits will be more therapeutic in nature. For example, in your second session, we may explore a specific symptom, problem, or past trauma mentioned in the first session.

What are the risks and benefits from therapy?

Although therapy offers benefits, it also presents possible risks. Such risks might include feelings, which are uncomfortable such as: discomfort, sadness, guilt, anxiety, anger and frustrations. You could actually feel worse as we begin to work on sensitive areas of your life or recall unpleasant memories. These feelings could possibly affect life outside the counseling office.


Benefits may include such things as gaining insight into your problems, developing coping skills and resources, and changing yourself so that participating in life’s daily activities generally becomes a more positive experience. You have the right to end our therapeutic relationship at any time and I will endeavor to make my services available to you in the future if warranted.


You are the expert on your life and my goal is to create a safe space where we can create a healthy therapeutic relationship and facilitate an atmosphere for change.

What issues can be addressed in therapy?

Therapy can address a variety of issues and concerns. I specialize in treating anxiety, trauma, PTSD, military/veteran's and their families, and relationship issues. 

Other issues that can be addressed include: 

  • Adjusting to Change / Life Transitions

  • Anger

  • Anxiety

  • Blended Family Issues

  • Communication Problems

  • Divorce / Divorce Adjustment

  • Family Problems

  • Grief, Loss, and Bereavement

  • Military and Veterans Issues

  • Parenting

  • Posttraumatic Stress / Trauma

  • Pre-Marital Counseling

  • Relationships and Marriage

  • Self-Esteem

  • Stress

  • Suicidal Ideation and Behavior

  • Women's Issues

Do you offer a Good Faith Estimate (GFE)? 

A Good Faith Estimate (GFE) falls under the new No Surprises Act. Please ask your provider if you wish to receive this estimate for services. These estimates are designed for individuals paying cash/card (private pay) rather than utilizing insurance coverage. 


The No Surprises Act established new protections and disclosure requirements against surprise medical billing that takes effect on January 1, 2022. In the final days of 2020, Congress enacted and the President signed into law the No Surprises Act as part of the omnibus pandemic spending relief bill. Federal agencies published Part I and Part II final interim rules and a third interim proposed rule. The new law requires healthcare providers and facilities to provide Good Faith Estimates to uninsured, out-of-network, or self-paying clients for services offered when scheduling care or when the client requests an estimate.

Please check out this link regarding more information about the Good Faith Estimate:

What is the timeframe for a GFE? 

The Good Faith Estimate must be provided within:

  1. If a service is scheduled at least three (3) days in advance, the Good Faith Estimate must be provided not later than one (1) business day after the date of scheduling;

  2. If a service is scheduled at least ten (10) days in advance, the Good Faith Estimate must be provided not later than three (3) business days after the date of scheduling;

  3. If the Good Faith Estimate is otherwise requested by an uninsured or self-pay individual, the Good Faith Estimate must be provided not later than three (3) business days after the request.

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